✪✪✪ Process Essay: What Makes A Great Civil War General

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Process Essay: What Makes A Great Civil War General

Baker Process Essay: What Makes A Great Civil War General. Analysis: The Deepening Divide also enacted and expanded federal death penalty statutes for peacetime espionage by military personnel and for a vast range of categories of Process Essay: What Makes A Great Civil War General. Here are a couple more topics and works Reflective Definition show of the range of William Shakespeare. The Earth is a complex system. Sociology Process Essay: What Makes A Great Civil War General psychological diseases: the character in dickens hard times between circumstance and mental health.

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The same year the U. Osborn before the war, a prominent member of the Social Science Research Council. Osborn founded a filmmaking unit, headed by the celebrated Hollywood director Frank Capra. Capra in turn established an animation unit headed by Theodore Geisel "Dr. The Navy, Marines, Army Air Force, and Coast Guard followed suit, employing filmmakers, actors and animators -- increasingly working in consultation with educators, psychologists and sociologists. In the course of the war, the U. Although most of these had nothing to do with public health, focusing on other issues deemed crucial to the war effort, many films did include material on medicine and public health, and some were wholly devoted to health concerns. Friedman, ed.

But the World War II-era public health film was not just a military matter. During the war, the quasi-military U. Public Health Service, state and local departments of health, and non-governmental organizations such as the National Tuberculosis Association and the Red Cross intensified their film-making activities, often coordinating their efforts on federal, state and local levels. These health films testify to a widespread belief in the power of motion pictures to educate and mobilize. Many of them also document specific projects and campaigns. In , for example, the federal Works Projects Administration WPA co-sponsored a health initiative in Alabama that included funding for production of "scripts for sound film programs".

These were to be produced in tandem with: posters; pamphlets; exhibitions; radio plays, "lectures", "interviews," and "short radio talks" with separate scripts "for Negro programs" ; a speakers bureau; and a traveling marionette show. Alabama public health education program. Official project to Sponsored by the Alabama State Board of Health. Montgomery, AL, Public health motion pictures almost never stood alone: they were usually designed to serve in larger campaigns that deployed a variety of media. Like any complex cultural production, they were packed with meaning, rife with metaphors and representations of the social practices and conditions of the day: industrial warfare, machine technology, popular culture, consumer goods, urban and rural life, racial segregation, the automobile and the railroad.

The public health films of the s were part of a larger rhetorical effort to consolidate an ideological consensus. They celebrated a utopian, almost intoxicated, vision of American democracy -- a missionary urge to democratize other nations and societies -- and a deep faith in the ability of science to solve previously intractable problems of poverty and disease. They also promoted fear of the non-Western races and nations as a source of contagion, and were chock full of casual racism, class prejudice, and sexism. The contradiction that seems evident now, was invisible then: war-time public health films trafficked in racial, gender, class, and national stereotypes, even as they offered a vision of an egalitarian democratic society mobilized to fight the forces of bigotry and prejudice.

They were shown in a variety of venues -- army bases, naval vessels, battlefield encampments, hospitals, schools, community centers, traveling health-mobiles, even movie theatres -- to a variety of audiences. The public health filmmakers of the s knew from first-hand experience that the public paid attention to movies that entertained, told a story and had characters and situations audience members could identify with. Armed with this conventional wisdom, filmmakers tried to make movies that recruited the emotions of audience members, and shaped their views.

Their goal was not only to inform the public on the particulars of a specific public health campaign or issue, but to mold each viewer into an informed, "enlightened" citizen or citizen-soldier , and to create a climate of support, that would further the larger goals of public health and collective action. Conservative opponents of the New Deal condemned government expenditures on public health and other informational films, which they saw as close cousins of the propaganda films produced in Nazi Germany and the U. Before the U. Some prominent members of the film industry, both film distributors and studios, also opposed the idea of government-funded film as socialistic.

See Clayton R. Whether they succeeded is hard to tell. With the exponential increase in film production, there was a learning curve, and eventually the implementation of procedures to critique screenplays and review the effectiveness of how well films communicated specific skills and information to audiences. According to Adolf Nichtenhauser, the first historian of medical film and a participant in the planning and evaluation of war-time public health films, after a rough start in and '41, military film producers learned to carefully study and apply "psychological and artistic factors in film design. But it was less easy to determine the effectiveness of the subsidiary or larger purposes of film-the motion picture as a technology of opinion-making and consensus-building -- which was more of an implicit belief, a widely held assumption.

As the films grew in sophistication, the issue of the relationship between sound and visual came to the fore: public health filmmakers began to think more critically about films which used visuals as backdrops for wordy lectures. Along with this renewed emphasis on the visual came an increasing belief that dramatization was superior to "purely logical expository treatment", or at least that didactic or moral exhortation could be effective only if leavened with stories and characters which audience members could identify with. To some degree, this approach rested on an assessment of the intellectual and moral capacity of film audiences that undermined the goal of fostering an enlightened citizenry.

It implied that audience members except for specially selected groups had the mental capacity of children, and that films should therefore only make "elementary mental requirements," have a friendly informal tone, keep things very simple and make ample use of comic exaggeration and repetition. The entertainment-oriented public health film contained an implicit critique of mass culture, even as it deployed the techniques of mass culture. If the average American was a semi-literate simpleton, easily manipulated if not hypnotized by animated cartoons and cartoonish narratives, then film empowered the manipulators, who deployed film as a technology of manipulation, and not the people.

At the same time, the increasing adoption of the forms of mass culture, and the increasing deployment of plebeian voices and characters, contained an implicit critique of high culture which, through its high-falutin' neo-English accent, stage diction, pomposity and condescending tone, not only failed to communicate with the public, but even made itself slightly ridiculous. While Nichtenhauser and others praised the turn toward the visual, the new public health films of the s used sound as much as cinematography, and were as much influenced by radio and Madison Avenue, as by Hollywood. Typically, the screen images, and theatrical dialogue if any , were accompanied by the voice of an authoritative male narrator -- sometimes disembodied, sometimes onscreen -- who directly addressed the audience, using the rhetoric of science and reason to persuade viewers to change their private behavior and encourage participation in collective action.

The assumption that audience members would identify with the narrator's voice, and adopt it as their own "voice of reason," initially came to the public health film from political speechmaking and pedagogical lecturing, but the influence of radio, advertising and marketing theory which in this period were increasing drawing on sociology and behavioral psychology gave narration a broader palette of colors. As an aid to identification, the voiceover could be delivered in a variety of registers and tones: friendly, colloquial, educated, scolding, seductive, jokey, or stentorian, depending on the subject and intended audience.

The stentorian voice, while commonly used, eventually received much criticism among filmmakers, as an outdated reflex, a tic of expository filmmaking. Nichtenhauser complained that one film used the "intimidating, pseudo-authoritative, ever-continuing voice of the March of Time [style] narrator with its artificial sense of urgency and its intonation of doom. But in the s it was still au courant, regarded as very modern and very scientific. A final point needs to be made about the increasing specialization and sophistication of war-time public health films.

Nichtenhauser argued that "expert film professionals were needed to make effective films," and that this was "a matter of teaming up the subject-matter specialist [e. Before the war, the methodology of educational and propaganda films was much more haphazard. A few were made with trained specialists, who dealt with every aspect; most were made without much cinematic or pedagogical expertise, and without much critical evaluation. During the war, public health filmmakers learned on the job and had the opportunity to work with more experienced film professionals. By , the standards of what constituted a successful public health film -- and the expectations of what professional credentials, training and knowledge filmmakers needed to bring to the task--all were markedly higher than they had been in While most films were not subjected to rigorous testing for audience response and effectiveness for which there was little time or money , many did undergo a review process during production and, after screenings, were assessed in reports and through word of mouth.

The IWA exists to this day, but with very little influence. At most, it is a "flicker of history, the custodian of doctrine" according to Wayne Thorpe. In exile, the organization atrophied, with just 5, mostly older members by During Spain's transition to democracy , the CNT was revived with a peak membership of over , in However, it was soon weakened, first by accusations of having been involved in the bombing of a nightclub , then by a schism.

Despite these concessions, the CGT still views itself as an anarcho-syndicalist organization and has around , members as of According to Darlington, syndicalism left a legacy that was widely admired by labor and political activists in a number of countries. The strike wave, including the recruitment of unskilled and foreign-born workers by the Congress of Industrial Organizations , that swept the United States in the s followed in the IWW's footsteps.

The tactic of the sit-down strike , made famous by the United Auto Workers in the Flint sit-down strike , was pioneered by Wobblies in In his study of French syndicalism, Stearns concludes that it was a dismal failure. The radicalism of syndicalist labor leaders, he claims, shocked French workers and the government and thereby weakened the labor movement as a whole. Syndicalism was most popular among workers not yet fully integrated into modern capitalist industry, but most French workers had adapted to this system and accepted it. Therefore, syndicalism was not able to seriously challenge prevailing conditions or even scare politicians and employers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Proposed type of economic system. Guild socialism Orthodox Marxism Revolutions of Utopian socialism.

Co-operative economics Corporatism Labour economics General strike Labour rights Labour unionisation Workers' self-management Mutual aid. Related subjects. Communism Copyleft Corporatism Criticism of capitalism Criticism of copyright Economics of fascism Criticism of wage labour Labour power Libertarian socialism National syndicalism Post-capitalism Revisionism Socialism Yellow syndicalism. Main article: National Syndicalism.

Main article: Fascist syndicalism. Main article: Fascism. Anarchism portal Communism portal Socialism portal Organized labour portal. Opponents of syndicalism in Northern and Central Europe seized upon this to characterize it as something non-native, even dangerous. For example, in the s unemployment funds were set up in Sweden, managed by unions but with significant contributions from the state. SAC membership then started to slowly rise. The most prominent syndicalists who returned to Russia were Maksim Raevskii , Vladimir Shatov , Alexander Schapiro , a participant in the syndicalist congress in London, and Vseolod Mikhailovich Eikhenbaum, known as Volin.

They were joined by the young local Grigorii Petrovitch Maksimov. They brought it with them proceeded to publish in Petrograd looking to spread syndicalist ideas among workers by introducing them to French movement and the general strike. Outside of Petrograd, syndicalism also gained followers in Vyborg , Moscow, and in the south among the miners in the Donets Basin and cement workers and longshoremen in Ekaterinodar and Novorossiisk. No more than 30, participated, according to its commander Leon Trotsky. There is no evidence the Confederation was effective in coordinating syndicalist activities. Shatov fought in the Red Army and eventually abandoned syndicalism. A number of anarchists fell in the Civil War. Alceste De Ambris and the syndicalist supporters of war in Italy also denounced the upheaval as a challenge to nationalism.

XXX, Darlington , pg. ISBN For a detailed study of this quote, see: Sternhell, Zeev Mazgaj, Paul Retrieved 2 February Altena, Bert In Berry, David; Bantman, Constance eds. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Avrich, Paul The Russian Anarchists. Bar, Antonio In van der Linden, Marcel ; Thorpe, Wayne eds. Revolutionary Syndicalism: An International Perspective. Aldershot: Scolar Press. Batalha, Claudio International Review of Social History.

Bayerlein, Bernhard ; van der Linden, Marcel In van der Linden, Marcel; Thorpe, Wayne eds. Bercuson, David Jay Berry, David In Graf, Andreas G. Berlin: Lukas Verlag. A History of the French Anarchist Movement, — Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Bertrand, Charles L. Bock, Hans-Manfred Meisenheim am Glan: Verlag Anton Hain. Geschichte des "linken Radikalismus" in Deutschland: Ein Versuch. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp. Buhle, Paul Monthly Review. Verfassungsschutzbericht Berlin: Bundesministerium des Innern.

Burgmann, Verity Challinor, Raymond The Origins of British Bolshevism. London: Croom Helm. Chwedoruk, Rafal Cleminson, Richard In Kinna, Ruth ed. The Bloomsbury Companion to Anarchism. London: Pluto Press. Crump, John New York: St. Martin's Press. Darlington, Ralph Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire. S2CID Aldershot: Ashgate. Anarchist Studies. International Labor and Working-Class History. Vienna: Europaverlag. In Downing, John D. Encyclopedia of Social Movement Media. Dubofsky, Melvyn Chicago: Quadrangle Books. Ealham, Chris Eley, Geoff New York: Oxford University Press. Gemie, Sharif Women's History Review.

Gervasoni, Marco Mil neuf cent: Revue d'histoire intellectuelle. Graf, Andreas G. Hart, John M. Hirsch, Steven In Hirsch, Steven; van der Walt, Lucien eds. Hirsch, Steven; van der Walt, Lucien Hobsbawm, Eric []. London: Abacus. Holton, R. The Sociological Review. Lehning, Arthur Internationale Tagung der Historiker der Arbeiterbewegung: Linzer Konferenz Levy, Carl McCallum, Todd JSTOR McKay, Iain Mitchell, Barbara O'Connor, Emmet Olssen, Erik Pascual, Alfredo El Confidencial. El Salto. Persson, Lennart K. Peterson, Larry Ridley, Frederick Cambrdidge: Cambridge University Press. Roberts, David D. The Syndicalist Tradition and Italian Fascism. Screpanti, Ernesto Review Fernand Braudel Center. Shor, Francis Sombart, Werner Socialism and the Social Movement.

London: J. Stearns, Peter N. Thompson, Ruth Thorpe, Wayne Amsterdam: Kluwer. Contemporary European History. Thorpe, Wayne a. Socialist History 37 : 23— Thorpe, Wayne b. Toledo, Edilene; Biondi, Luigi Tosstorf, Reiner Travis, Alan The Guardian. Labour History Review. The Palgrave Handbook of Anarchism. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. Zimmer, Kenyon In Bellwood, Peter S. The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration.

Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. Affinity group Anarcho-syndicalism Platformism Synthesis anarchism Union of egoists. Anarchism portal Category Outline. Anarchy Anti-authoritarianism Anti-capitalism Anti-statism Class consciousness Class struggle Classless society Common ownership Common resources Commons Commune Commune model of government Consensus democracy Co-operative economics Decentralized planning Direct democracy Egalitarian community Free association " From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs " Give-away shop General strike Gift economy Market abolitionism Mutual aid Prefigurative politics Primitive communism Proletarian internationalism Stateless communism Stateless society Workers control Workers cooperative Workers council Wage slavery.

Insurrectionary anarchism Platformism Synthesis federations. Anarchism Communism Socialism. Libertarian socialism. December riots in Argentina Occupy movement Labour history Labour rights Labour movement Trade union public sector. Labour council Union organizer National trade union centre Global union federation Union representative Clerk of the chapel Father of the chapel Local union Union dues Vigilance committee Union label Salt Trades hall Duty of fair representation.

Bargaining unit Collective bargaining Collaborative bargaining Enterprise bargaining agreement Global framework agreement Master contract Mutual gains bargaining Pattern bargaining Union security agreement. Strike pay Union wage premium Workers' compensation. International comparisons of labour unions Labour code Labour law Eight-hour day Worker centre. History - Outline. Buddhist Christian Christian communism Islamic Jewish. Anarchist economics Anti-revisionism Criticism of capitalism Criticism of socialism Critique of political economy Class struggle Democracy Dictatorship of the proletariat Egalitarianism Equal liberty Equality of opportunity Equality of outcome History of anarchism History of communism History of socialism Impossibilism " The Internationale " Internationalism State-owned enterprise Land reform Left-wing politics Mixed economy Mode of production Nanosocialism Nationalization Planned economy Post-capitalism Proletarian revolution Reformism Revisionism Socialisation of production Socialist economics Socialist market economy Socialist state State capitalism Trade union Welfare state.

Adhocracy Anarchist economics Basic income Calculation in kind Commune Common ownership Cooperative ownership Decentralized planning Direct democracy Economic democracy Economic planning Equal opportunity Free association Industrial democracy Labor-time calculation Labour voucher Organizational self-management Production for use Public ownership Social dividend Socialist mode of production Technocracy Workplace democracy. Tommaso Campanella Thomas More.

Tawney E. Wells Cornel West Richard D. International International socialist organisations National Socialist parties. Co-operative economics Labour economics General strike Labour rights Labour unionisation Workers' self-management Mutual aid. Authority control. Integrated Authority File Germany. Spain France data United States Japan. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Part of a series on. Related subjects Communism Copyleft Corporatism Criticism of capitalism Criticism of copyright Economics of fascism Criticism of wage labour Labour power Libertarian socialism National syndicalism Post-capitalism Revisionism Socialism Yellow syndicalism.

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